Controls of tree growth
We continue to monitor tree growth, canopy cover, phenology and mortality. Additionally, we monitor oil palm yield on and adjacent to the islands. These time-series will be crucial to investigate the determinants of tree growth in time and space.
Plant successional trajectories
The seed rain in each island is monitored and the number, species and performance of newly arrived woody species are analyzed.
Ecological-economic trade-offs
Ecological functions will depend on different design parameters of the enrichment experiment, including plot size and tree diversity. We estimate ecological outcomes (e.g. bird or invertebrate species diversity and abundance) and economic outcomes (yield, profit) as functions of the experimental design parameters.